This network builds upon the meteorological operational observation network at Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Hong Kong, that consists mainly of the radiosonde sounding stations, weather radars, ground-based GPS water vapor stations, AWSs, and satellites. During intensive observation period, observations in the sounding stations in Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, and Hong Kong will increase from the routine of twice per day to 4 times per day. We also plan to carry out air-borne observations over the northern South China Sea when possible. These data should provide information on thermodynamics in the atmosphere.
Meso-scale Observing Network
Information to be obtained is important for the understanding of the trigger mechanism in the meso-scale. The equipments employed in this campaign include 16 fixed wind-profiling radars (14 boundary layer wind-profiling radars plus 2 troposphere profiling radars) and 2 portable boundary layer wind-profiling radars. The two portable boundary layer wind profiler radars, which are used to record information on the atmospheric boundary layer wind field, (blue five-pointed star in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6) will be placed at Yangjiang and Qingyuan to complement the fixed wind profiler radar (red five-pointed star in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6) network and provide data comparable with upper air radiosounding observations. Moreover, 11 operational Doppler weather radars are put in place to cover the entire range of the studied region, making it possible to record the evolution of the precipitating convective system.
Intensive Observation Area of Convective Systems
Two intensive observation stations will be built. The dynamic and microphysical structures inside convective systems will be acquired by remote sensing instruments including 2 C-band dual polarization radars, 1 X-band dual polarization radar, 2 millimeter wave radars, 1 micro precipitation radar and 4 rain drop disdrometers. Two sites for intensive observation have been selected based on the distribution of the averaged precipitation over the South China during the first rainy season in South China (Fig. 3a and Fig. 3b). One is near Yangxi-Yangjiang-Enping located along the southwestern coast of Guangdong, the other is near Sanshui-Guangzhou-Heshan located in the central plain of Guangdong and about 100 km from the southwestern coast. This design help capture the different aspects of the nature of precipitation systems. In addition, observations obtained by the Doppler weather radar stations in Yangjiang and Guangzhou can be compared with that obtained by the portable dual polarization radar.
The 2 portable C-band dual polarization radars will be placed at Enping and Heshan meteorological stations, respectively. The radar in Enping station is about 49 km from the S-band Doppler radar in Yangjiang station, and that in Heshan station is about 45 km from S-band Doppler radar in Guangzhou station. The two set of radar not only allow data to be analyzed in parallel, but also make it is possible to examine wind retrievals. The X-band dual polarization radar will be placed in Yangxi to be compared with C-band and S-band Doppler radar observations.
During the pre-phase experiment period, all of the instruments will be concentrated in Sanshui for about 2 weeks in April. The comparisons will be made among the 4 raindrop distrometers, between the raindrop disdrometer and rain gauge observations, between the lowest-level (10-200 m height) precipitation retrieved by micro rain radar and rain gauge observations, and between the 2 millimeter wave cloud radars. Starting early May, the 4 raindrop spectrometers and 2 millimeter wave cloud radar will be divided into 2 groups to observe in the two intensive observing areas, respectively, and the micro rain radar will still be placed in Sanshui.
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